The rifleman (Acanthisitta chloris) (Māori: tītipounamu) is a small insectivorous passerine bird that is endemic to New Zealand. It belongs to the Acanthisittidae family, also known as the New Zealand wrens, of which it is one of only two surviving species. The rifleman resembles a wren in form, but is not related to the family of true wrens, Troglodytidae, nor the fairy-wrens of Australia.
The rifleman is named after a colonial New Zealand regiment because its plumage drew similarities with the military uniform of a rifleman.
The rifleman is New Zealand’s smallest endemic bird, with fully grown adults reaching around 8 cm. The male rifleman is bright green on the dorsal side, while the female is of a more somber brownish tone and her head and back are flecked with ochre. Male birds typically weigh around 6 g, females 7 g. Both birds are white on their under surfaces and have white eyebrow stripes. They have short, rounded wings, a very short tail, and a long, thin, awl-like bill which is slightly upturned for insertion into cracks. The rifleman flies quickly with a wing beat producing a characteristic humming sound like a humming bird.
The true habitat of this bird is thinly wooded forests, but other similar New Zealand species live near rocky outcrops. The rifleman is the most widespread species of acanthisittids in the two main islands of New Zealand. However, the bird occurs only rarely in latitudes north of Te Aroha. The North Island subspecies, A. c. granti, occurs mainly in lowland tawa forest, while the South Island subspecies, A. c. chloris, is found in high-altitude beech forest or lowland areas forested with podocarp. source