The mountain quail (Oreortyx pictus) is a small ground-dwelling bird in the New World quail family. This species is the only one in the genus Oreortyx, which is sometimes included in Callipepla. This is not appropriate, however, as the mountain quail’s ancestors have diverged from other New World quails earlier than the bobwhites, no later than 6 mya.
It inhabits mountainous chaparral west of the Rocky Mountains, from the United States to Baja peninsula Mexico. It has been introduced to British Columbia in Canada, and some areas of Washington state in the USA. It can be found up to 3,000 m (9,800 ft) above sea level. It is a non-migratory species; however some populations may be altitudinal migrants in some mountain ranges.